Climate Regulations

Regulatory Area Law or Policy Responsible Body Link Comments
Global Policy EU Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) European Commission EU INDC Submission to the UNFCCC for COP21
Climate Change Policy  2030 EU Climate and Energy Framework European Commission 2030 EU Climate and Energy Framework Binding targets:
40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels;
at least 27% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption;

Non-binding target:
at least 27% energy savings compared with the business-as-usual scenario
2030 EU Climate and Energy Framework - addressing emissions from agriculture and LULUCF European Commission 2030 EU Climate and Energy Framework - LULUCF Division of the 2030 EU Climate and Energy Framework, aimed at agriculture and land use emissions
Emissions Trading EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) European Commission EU ETS GHG emissions reduction targets of:
25% in 2020 against 2005 levels;
43% in 2030 against 2005 levels
Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Directive European Commission Energy Efficiency Directive Binding measures to support non-binding energy efficiency targets of:
20% by 2020 against 2005 levels;
27% by 2030 against 2005 levels
Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive European Commission Renewable Energy Directive Binding targets for 2020:
20% share of renewables in total energy consumption;
10% share of renewables in total transport fuel consumption
GHG Emissions   CO2 emissions from passenger cars European Commission CO2 emissions from passenger cars Target of 95g/km of CO2 (to be phased in by 2021), applicable to 95% of new cars in 2020 and 100% in 2021
2020 EU Climate and Energy Framework: Effort Sharing Decision European Commission 2020 EU Climate and Energy Framework: Effort Sharing Decision Greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets for each Member State, covering sectors not covered by the EU ETS (road transport, heating of building, small-scale industry and non-CO2 emissions from agriculture)
Regulatory Area Law or Policy Responsible Body Link Comments
Global Policy Japan Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Japan INDC Submission to the UNFCCC for COP21
Climate Change Policy Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures Ministry of Environment Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures GHG emissions reduction targets:
25% by 2020 against 1990 levels;
80% by 2050 against 1990 levels

Renewable energy targets:
10% share of renewable in total primary energy supply by 2020
Energy Policy  Act Concerning the Rational Use of Energy (known as Energy Conservation Act) Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) Energy Conservation Act Basis of Japan's energy efficiency and conservation policy
Basic Energy Plan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) Basic Energy Plan Basic direction of Japan’s energy policy under the Basic Act on Energy Policy
Taxes and Subsidies Global Warming Countermeasures Tax (or Tax for Climate Change Mitigation) Ministry of Environment Tax for Climate Change Mitigation The carbon tax is a surtax on the existing upstream Petroleum and Coal Tax
Emissions Trading Voluntary Emissions Trading Scheme (JVETS) Ministry of Environment JVETS Support for GHG emissions reduction activities that are not included under the Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan (VAP)
Energy Efficiency  Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures Ministry of Environment Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures Energy efficiency standards for various sectors
Fuel Efficiency Standards for Vehicles - Top Runner Program Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Fuel Efficiency Standards for Vehicles Fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty vehicles
Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff Act on Renewable Energy Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) Act on Purchase of Renewable Energy Sourced Electricity by Electric Utilities Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy (solar PV, wind power, hydraulic power, geothermal and biomass) based on a fixed-period contract with fixed price
Industry Voluntary Keidanren’s Voluntary Action Plan (VAP) toward 2020 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; Keidanren VAP GHG emissions reduction targets for energy conversion and industrial sectors
Regulatory Area Law or Policy Responsible Body Link Comments
Global Policy

United States Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)

U.S. Federal Government US INDC Submission to the UNFCCC for COP21
Climate Change Policy

AB 32 (California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006)

State of California; California Air Resources Board AB 32

State-wide GHG emissions reduction target of 25% by 2020, base year 1990;

Cap-and-trade scheme;
2020 renewable energy target of 33%

Energy Policy Energy Policy Act U.S. Federal Government Energy Policy Act

Tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types

Emissions Trading  AB 32 (California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006)

State of California; California Air Resources Board

AB 32 Cap-and-trade program initiated in 2013
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative - RGGI

Regional (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont) cap-and-trade program covering greenhouse gas emissions from power plants

Energy Efficiency Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

Department of Transportation; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Environmental Protection Agency

CAFE Standards Standards to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles)
Renewable Energy 

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Stimulus, the Recovery Act)

U.S. Federal Government The Recovery Act $16.8 billion awarded to the Office of Energy Efficiency (EERE) for its programs and initiatives
Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 U.S. Federal Government Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008

Extension of tax credits for renewable energy initiatives (cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, wind, solar, geothermal and hydro-electric power); tax credit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

GHG Emissions   Clean Air Act

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Clean Air Act Regulation of GHG emissions from mobile and stationary sources of air pollution
Zero Emission Vehicle Program State of California; California Air Resources Board Zero Emission Vehicle Program

Major manufacturers of passenger cars and light trucks (up to 8,500 pounds) must attain a certain number of ZEV credits (depending on the number of vehicles produced and delivered for sale in the state);

Initiated in California and adopted in Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont

SB 1204 Senate Bill State of California SB 1204

Creation of the California Clean Truck, Bus, and Off-Road Vehicle and Equipment Technology Program to fund development, demonstration, pilot projects, and commercial deployment of zero and near-zero-emission truck, bus, and off-road vehicle and equipment technologies